Period 5
Industrialization and Global Integration,
c. 1750 to c. 1900
Scroll to the bottom for all corresponding Crash Course videos for this unit!
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Cram Packet

Outline of Unit 5 (long/detailed)


Cram Packet #2


Unit 5 review pp


PowerPoint From Class on Industrial Revolution and Imperialism


Key Concept 5.1. Industrialization and Global Capitalism

Global Industrial Revolution and European Industrial Revolution


I. Industrialization fundamentally changed how goods were produced.
A. A variety of factors led to the rise of industrial production: Europe’s location on the Atlantic Ocean;
- the geographical distribution of coal, iron and timber;
- European demographic changes
- urbanization
- improved agricultural productivity
- legal protection of private property
- an abundance of rivers and canals
- access to foreign resources; and the accumulation of capital.
B. The development of machines,
- including steam engines and the internal combustion engine, made it possible to exploit vast new resources of energy stored in fossil fuels, specifically coal and oil. The “fossil fuels” revolution greatly increased the energy available to human societies.
Below is a list of the important inventions of the Industrial Revolution and their significance to the world. I would look at it :)

C. The development of the factory system concentrated labor in a single location and led to an increasing degree of specialization of labor.

How did factories change the nature of labor itself?

-shift from agricultural labor to industrial labor

-jobs became less diversified (e.g. a laborer would always do the same task in a factory)

-more women and children in the workforce

-decreased sanitary/ safety conditions, frequent abuse to the workers in the workplace

-sometimes unfair practices were enacted (very low wages, long hours)

-usually based on a strict time schedule


  • Provision of benefits to members: Early trade unions provided a range of benefits to insure members against unemployment, ill health, old age and funeral expenses. Professional training, legal advice, and representation for members is still an important benefit of trade union membership.
  • Collective bargaining: Trade unions are able to operate openly and are recognized by employers, and they may negotiate with employers over wages and working conditions.
  • Industrial action: Trade unions can organize strikes or resistance to reach certain wants and goals.
  • Political activity: Promotion of favorable measures to the interests of their members or workers as a whole. They can practice campaigns, undertake lobbying, or financially support individual candidates or parties.


D. As the new methods of industrial production became more common in parts of northwestern Europe, they spread to other parts of Europe and the rest of the world (such as the United States, Russia or Japan).
E. The “second industrial revolution” led to new methods in the production of steel, chemicals, electricity and precision machinery during the second half of the 19th century.
F. The changes in the mode of production also stimulated the professionalization of sciences (such as medicine or engineering) and led to the increasing application of science to new forms of technology.

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Industrial Revolution Chart


II. New patterns of global trade and production developed that further integrated the global economy as industrialists sought raw materials and new markets for the increasing amount of goods produced in their factories.
A. The need for raw materials for the factories and increased food supplies for the growing population in urban centers led to the growth of export economies around the world that specialized in mass producing single natural resources (such as cotton, rubber, palm oil, sugar, wheat, meat or guano). The profits from these raw materials were used to purchase finished goods.


How did the Industrial Revolution influence world trade overall?

It created new markets, demand was met by increased production, the importation of raw materials became more prevalent. New technology such as railroads and steam power lowered transit time (therefore, exportation of perishable food products became possible) Overall, global trade increased.



How did the Industrial Revolution affect the role of science in larger society?

Scientific methods became more accepted by factory owners. New ways and techniques to better improve production started to have a scientific framework. Accepting scientific practices slowly trickled down to the lower class. It also caused a dispute between religion and reason.


B. The rapid development of industrial production contributed to the decline of economically productive, agriculturally based economies (such as textile production in India).
C. The rapid increases in productivity caused by industrial production encouraged industrialized states to seek out new consumer markets for their finished goods (such as British and French attempts to “open up” the Chinese market during the 19th century).
D. The need for specialized and limited metals for industrial production, as well as the global demand for gold, silver and diamonds as forms of wealth, led to the development of extensive mining centers (such as copper mines in Mexico or gold and diamond mines in South Africa).


What role did monetary and precious metals play in the Industrial Revolution?

-Iron became an essential material for steel production

-Silver, gold, and copper were exported faster due to the introduction of faster transportation (steam power and railroad)

-Important raw materials, so there was an increase in exports in these materials

-Gold and silver became important in developing economies (to back up paper money), so they were important exports


III. To facilitate investments at all levels of industrial production, financiers developed and expanded various financial institutions.

What financial institutions facilitated industrial production?
-Banks loaned money to entrepreneurs
-Governments (particularly the U.S) funded industrial developments such as railroads or canals which aided in transportation of raw materials and exports

How did the Industrial Revolution affect the scale of businesses and overall economic activity?
-“Trusts” and big businesses became more prevalent
-Monopolies overtook the market which made it more difficult for smaller businesses to survive
-Businesses grew to a national scale
-Money was concentrated with the rich

A. Financial instruments expanded (such as stock markets, insurance, gold standard or limited liability corporations).


How did industrialists legitimize the economic changes of the Industrial Rev?

-Social Darwinism – the big businesses deserved to survive since they were better equipped in terms of money and other investments than the smaller businesses. This also reflected their views of themselves in relation to the lower class.

-“Gospel of Wealth” – God gave the rich the duty to help the poor by providing opportunities but not through charity so the poor would have to work for their own well-beings.

-“Self-strengthening”- they believed that their work would develop the nation as a whole


B. The global nature of trade and production contributed to the proliferation of large-scale transnational businesses (such as bicycle tires, the United Fruit Company or the HSBC–Hong Kong & Shanghai Banking Corporation).
C. The ideological inspiration for these financial changes lies in the development of laissez-faire capitalism and economic liberalism associated with Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill.



IV. There were major developments in transportation and communication, including railroads, steamships, telegraphs and canals.

What were the important developments in transportation during the Ind. Rev?
-Steam power/ coal – powered ships and trains reliably
-Railroads/trains – enabled products/ideas to be quickly transmitted to other regions of the continent

V. The development and spread of global capitalism led to a variety of responses.
A. In industrialized states, many workers organized themselves to improve working conditions, limit hours and gain higher wages, while others opposed capitalist exploitation of workers by promoting alternative visions of society (such as Utopian socialism, Marxism or anarchism).


How did governments respond to the tremendous economic changes of the Industrial Revolution?

-In US, presidents/federal government did nothing to stop the overgrowth of big business

-In US, the government banned slavery due to shift to industrial economy

-In Japan, the government became more involved with business.

-Developed more massive armies due to increase of wealth

-Competition between industrial nations, which resulted in more conflicts


B. In Qing China and the Ottoman Empire, some members of the government resisted economic change and attempted to maintain preindustrial forms of economic production.


Why is this important? -- The Industrial Revolution, as persuasive as it may have been for many people and many countries at large, was also largely threatening to many different forms of government and many different social orders. So drastic was the change brought on by the Industrial Revolution, and at so fundamental a level, that many countries did and still do feel at risk of losing their ways of life to capitalization or globalization.


C. In a small number of states, governments promoted their own state-sponsored visions of industrialization (such as the economic reforms of Meiji Japan, the development of factories and railroads in Tsarist Russia, China’s SelfStrengthening Movement or Muhammad Ali’s development of a cotton textile industry in Egypt).
D. In response to criticisms of industrial global capitalism, some governments attempted to prevent rebellions by promoting various types of reforms (such as state pensions and public health in Germany, expansion of suffrage in Britain, or public education in many states).

How and why did some governments reform their practices because of the Industrial Revolution?
-As big businesses grew there became a need to mediate between employers and workers.
-Initially, the US government favored big businesses in the court. Later, however, the government was somewhat against big business and several anti-monopoly acts were passed (e.g. Sherman Anti-Trust)
-The US government had to also deal with protesters (particularly those working under factory conditions).
-Some governments, such as China, actively pursued industrial activities to strengthen the state (i.e., self-strengthening) by adopting western technology (which was considered to be shameful in the past). They did not, however, truly became an industrial nation as their “self-strengthening” was a reaction to the recent rise of Western dominance.

VI. The ways in which people organized themselves into societies also underwent
significant transformations in industrialized states due to the fundamental restructuring of the global economy.
A. New social classes, including the middle class and the proletariat, developed.


How did the Industrial Revolution affect social and demographic characteristics?

-In industrial nations, cities were population centers

-Initially, mortality rates/instances of illnesses increased to the unsanitary conditions of factories and cities

-famines and food shortages were common as food had to be brought into cities

-population increased dramatically



  • During this time racial prejudices began much more prominent.
    - These racial assumptions continued to inhibit colonial authorities from training the natives of colonial countries


B. Family dynamics, gender roles and demographics changed in response to industrialization.
C. Rapid urbanization that accompanied global capitalism often led to unsanitary conditions, as well as to new forms of community.

Key Concept 5.2. Imperialism and Nation-State Formation

As states industrialized during this period, they also expanded their existing overseas colonies and established new types of colonies and transoceanic empires. Regional warfare and diplomacy both resulted in and were affected by this process of modern empire building. The process was led mostly by Europe, although not all states were affected equally, which led to an increase of European influence around the world. The United States and Japan also participated in this process. The growth of new empires challenged the power of existing land-based empires of Eurasia. New ideas about nationalism, race, gender, class, and culture also developed that facilitated the spread of transoceanic empires, as well as justified anti-imperial resistance and the formation of new national identities.


Important Lecture on Imperialism (detailed):

Resource Map of Africa Prior to Imperialism Religion Map of Africa Prior to Imperialism
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Berlin Conference Map of Africa:
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I. Industrializing powers established transoceanic empires.
A. States with existing colonies (such as the British in India or the Dutch in Indonesia) strengthened their control over those colonies.
-
  • European states, as well as the Americans and the Japanese, established empires (British, Dutch, French, German, Russian) throughout Asia and the Pacific, while Spanish and Portuguese influence declined.

"The Sun Never Set on the British Empire:"
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Which states increased their influence and control over their pre-existing colonies, and which saw their influence decrease?

  • Great Britain increased its control over India
  • Spain lost control of its colonies in Latin America, as their colonies successfully fought for independence
  • Great Britain also lost control of its American colonies
  • China increased control over their empire (Manchuria, Taiwan, Vietnam, etc.)
  • Persia and the ottoman empires control weakened (Balkans, Romania)

B. European states (such as the British, Dutch, French, German or Russian), as well as the Americans and the Japanese, established empires throughout Asia and the Pacific, while Spanish and Portuguese influence declined.

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French Empire
French Empire

How did imperialism affect Europe’s influence around the world?

  • Increases due to the greater presence of European colonies throughout the world
  • Spread of westernization (the West started to out produce China and Japan)
  • European culture (language, religion, etc.) spread

C. Many European states used both warfare and diplomacy to establish empires in Africa (such as Britain in West Africa or Belgium in the Congo).

  • The Berlin Conference in 1884 was called to divide African colonies among various European powers.
  • The Berlin Conference This site explains the Berlin Conference in detail and provides instruction for a classroom group activity. It also provides several resources such as maps and Library of Congress Papers.
  • This Model UN guide gives a thorough overview of the Berlin Conference. Could be combined with the previous guide for an activity.
  • There were limited amounts of successful resistance. One of the most notable instances of this was in Ethiopia. The battle of Adowa was between Italian and Ethiopian forces. King Menelik II lead the Ethiopians to victory. They were one of the few areas in Africa that managed to avoid imperialism.

What methods and tactics did industrialized states use to establish and expand their empires?
  • Empires offered incentives to natives (westernization, culture, protection) in exchange for their compliance
  • They occupied powerful roles in court and office (eg. China in Thailand)
  • They used military force to stabilize the empire
  • Indirect rule (eg. In Africa Britain ruled through the natives)
  • Adopting business imperialism provided a stable source of income (through the acquisition of raw materials/cash crops) which could be used to further government efforts to expand their empires
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Read the brief summary regarding why the European countries went after specific regions of Africa:


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D. In some parts of their empires, Europeans established settler colonies (such as the British in southern Africa, Australia and New Zealand; or the French in Algeria).

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E. In other parts of the world, industrialized states practiced economic imperialism (such as the British and French expanding their influence in China through the Opium Wars, or the British and the United States investing heavily in Latin America).
http://www.victorianweb.org/history/empire/opiumwars/opiumwars1.html (brief summary)




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Very detailed lecture on Imperialism, the Sphere of Influence, Opium Wars, and White Man's Burden:

II. Imperialism influenced state formation and contraction around the world.

How did imperialism help, hurt, or change various states?
  • Overall, African countries/nations were impaired by the intervention of imperialistic European nations
    • The African population was largely decimated due to an increase in disease, plague, and violence
    • Natives were exploited for unfair labor practices (not necessarily slavery) and raw materials were plundered by the Europeans

  • The court of colonized nations began to resemble that of Europe (for example the court of Sultan of Kedah resembled European practices)
    • Trial by jury replaced supernatural practices

  • Countries in South America, the Caribbean, and Latin America became predominately Spanish/Portuguese
  • Countries in Southeast Asia (ex. Philippines) became predominately Christian/Catholic
  • American colonies experienced a boom in population growth (due to British rule), which accelerated settlement and industrialization in the region

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A. The expansion of U.S. and European influence over Tokugawa Japan led to the emergence of Meiji Japan.


Emperor Meiji initiated many new reforms:

    1. Political revolution in late 19th century led to industrialization
    2. Signified end of Tokugawa Era
    3. Emperor Meiji returned to Tokyo and regained power
    4. Actual political power was transferred from Tokugawa Bakufu to a small amount of nobles and former samurai
    5. Meiji pushed to reform economy and military to “keep up” with western countries
    6. Reforms effect religion: human rights was now considered a religious freedom
    7. Government created an educational system modeled after the French and German models

The Abolition of Feudalism in Japan

      1. Started by Meiji attempt to decentralize feudalism system
      2. Ended complicated class structure
      3. Starting in 1869, Lords began to turn their land over to the Emperor and others began to do the same
      4. Standardized the various “domains” administration, creating “governors”
      5. 250 former “domains” were redone into 72 prefectures and three cities
      6. After redistricting the domains, “governors” were eased out of political power

The Borrowing and Adaptation of Western Technology and Industrial Growth





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The Meiji Restoration brought about anadaption of various Western institutions and ideologies

A. Legal system

B. Educational structure

C. Constitutional Government along parliamentary lines


The following developments summarize Japan's societal shifts during the Meiji Era:

1. Japan became an industrial country because it was seen as a sign of strength

2. The already-existing treaties with western countries limited Japan’s economic success until after the turn of the century

3. Schools’ philosophies and methodology were based on western ideals

4. Then schools put an emphasis on ethics and created a nationalist education, a European ideal

5. Army was modeled after Prussia’s and the Navy was modeled after Britain’s

6. Currency was reformed and a national bank was created in 1880s

7. 1889: European-style constitution was created

8. 1872: first railway was created from Tokyo to Yokohama


However, in 1898:

"The last of the 'unequal treaties' with Western powers was removed, signaling Japan's new status among the nations of the world. In a few decades, by creating modern social, educational, economic, military, and industrial systems, the Emperor Meiji's "controlled revolution" had transformed a feudal and isolated state into a world power."

Japan’s Growing Role in International Affairs


1. Sino-Japanese War (1894): Japan defeated China, making Japan the first non-western imperial power. Japan was rewarded with right to Taiwan/Pescadores Islands.

  • As Western aggression increased in Japan, Japanese leadership increasingly began to emphasize the need to defend Japan’s “Line of Interest”
    • the line around the country and surrounding areas that was viewed as critically important in terms of preserving the nation’s independence.

  • By the 1890s, Japanese leaders began to view control of Korea as being within Japan’s Line of Interest and hence vitally important to Japan’s self interests.
  • In 1894, Japan went to war with China over a dispute about political influence in Korea.
  • Much of the world thought that Japan was suicidal for taking on China, but in 1895 they proved the world wrong and emerged victorious.
  • This victory marked the beginning of Japan’s colonial empire as they acquired Taiwan as a colonial possession as part the indemnity settlement.
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B. The United States, Russia and Qing China emulated European transoceanic imperialism by expanding their land borders and conquering neighboring territories.

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China’s explosive population growth between 1750 and 1850.

. Population Growth

  • Population surpassed 300 million by 1800, whereas previously it was steadily around 70 to 80 million for more than a few hundred years.
    • Due to the huge increase of population with only 10% of land available for agriculture, the Chinese were stretched thin in regards to output of resources.
    • There was little land to produce enough wheat and rice to feed its increasing population.
    • Natural (drought and famine) and man-made (floods as a result of irrigation systems) catastrophes led to even more problems providing for its people. This was during the Qing Dynasty, also known as, the Manchu Dynasty.


Decline of the Manchu dynasty beginning in the late 18th century

Growing Western influence

The Opium Wars See also Special Topic Page on History of Hong Kong


The Taiping rebellion from 1850 to 1864

The Boxer Rebellion

Sun Yat-Sen and the 1911 nationalist revolution
The Treaty of Nanking ended the first Opium War in 1842, giving the British an indemnity of 21 million pounds, treaty ports, and Hong Kong
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European nations and the United States had been industrializing since the late 18th century, and Great Britain in particular sought to expand its newly found trade mechanisms of cheaper products with faster means of transportation.

  • Though China tried largely to keep its large stock piles of precious metals, namely silver, it did trade some with the west. Western powers were colonizing in Asia, but there was still a huge demand for Chinese silk and tea. Great Britain struggled to find any leverage for trade until it began to trade Indian opium to the Chinese.
  • At this time, other nations such as Germany and Japan began setting up colonies in China. Setting up the "spheres of influence" in China caused a lot of tension within the country. The Chinese people did not want foreign influence in their country and had a history of being isolationist. This caused uprisings like the "Boxer Rebellion" which was a movement against colonial powers.

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C. Anti-imperial resistance led to the contraction of the Ottoman Empire (such as the establishment of independent states in the Balkans; semi-independence in Egypt, French and Italian colonies in North Africa; or later British influence in Egypt).


How did anti-imperialism affect the Ottoman Empire’s territories?

  • Resistance of colonies led to the formation of independent states
    • Ex. Balkans, Greece, Egypt

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D. New states (such as the Cherokee Nation, Siam, Hawai’i or the Zulu Kingdom) developed on the edges of an empire.
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What were the effects of nationalism on various peoples and regions?

  • Nationalism started revolutions to gain independence from mother country
    • The Jamaica letter was an appeal to England to support Latin America ni their fight for independence against Span
    • Anti-imperialism in the Ottoman Empire also thrived off of nationalism and helped to create new territories

  • Increased racism against natives

E. The development and spread of nationalism as an ideology fostered new communal identities (such as the German nation, Filipino nationalism or Liberian nationalism).

Western Imperialism around the world cram packet:


III. New racial ideologies, especially Social Darwinism, facilitated and justified imperialism.


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The White Man's Burden:

  • Social Darwinism
  • The belief that they were aiding natives through religious conversion and westernization
    • Believed it was “god’s duty”

  • Promise of new wealth achieved through greater access to raw materials

A way to justify the Anglo/Western supremacy was the process of eugenics. Eugenics is the study and belief that the human population can be enhanced by discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable and undesirable traits.

Key Concept 5.3. Nationalism, Revolution and Reform

The eighteenth century marked the beginning of an intense period of revolution and rebellion against existing governments, and the establishment of new nation-states around the world. Enlightenment thought and the resistance of colonized peoples to imperial centers shaped this revolutionary activity. These rebellions sometimes resulted in the formation of new states and stimulated the development of new ideologies. These new ideas in turn further stimulated the revolutionary and anti-Imperial tendencies of this period.


Summary Packet:


I. The rise and diffusion of Enlightenment thought that questioned established traditions in all areas of life often preceded the revolutions and rebellions against existing governments.

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A. Enlightenment thinkers (such as Voltaire or Rousseau) applied new ways of understanding the natural world to human relationships, encouraging observation and inference in all spheres of life.

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Social Contract- Many Enlightenment ideas stressed the importance of the rights of man and the freedoms that were due to him by his government. They stressed that should said government not give him those rights, he then has the right to take away that government's power and put in a new regime that will instill upon him those rights. The relationship between man and authority is two sided, where the authoritarian government provide with him his benefits, such as his natural rights, protection from foreign foes and aid should he request it. In return, the man should follow the rules of the government and obey it, or the government has the right to punish him.

This was used as a pretense for the revolutions listed above, where the government was overthrown for not giving the people the rights they deserved.

B. Enlightenment thinkers critiqued the role that religion played in public life, insisting on the importance of reason as opposed to revelation.

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C. Enlightenment thinkers (such as Locke or Montesquieu) developed new political ideas about the individual, natural rights and the social contract.

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D. Enlightenment thinkers also challenged existing notions of social relations, which led to the expansion of rights as seen in expanded suffrage, the abolition of slavery and the end of serfdom.

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The ideas of Enlightenment thinkers influenced resistance to existing political authority, as reflected in revolutionary documents
The American Declaration of Independence

The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

Bolivar’s Jamaica Letter

Declaration of Rights of Man Side by Side Comparison

These ideas influenced many people to challenge existing notions of social relations, which led to the expansion of rights as seen in expanded suffrage, the abolition of slavery and the end of serfdom, as their ideas were implemented.

II. Beginning in the 18th century, peoples around the world developed a new sense of commonality based on language, religion, social customs and territory. These newly imagined national communities linked this identity with the borders of the state, while governments used this idea to unite diverse populations.

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III. The spread of Enlightenment ideas and increasing discontent with imperial rule propelled reformist and revolutionary movements.
A. Subjects challenged the centralized imperial governments (such as the Wahhabi rebellion against the Ottomans or the challenge of the Marathas to the Mughal Sultans).


B. American colonial subjects led a series of rebellions, which facilitated the emergence of independent nation-states in the
United States

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American Revolution Review Lecture




Haitiian Rebelltion

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mainland nations of modern Latin America.

French subjects rebelled against their monarchy.





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French Revolution Study Visual of Events:



These revolutions reflected the ideals of the Enlightenment in writings: the Declaration of Independence, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, and the Jamaica Letter.


C. Slave resistance (such as the establishment of Maroon societies) challenged existing authorities in the Americas (such as in Brazil, Cuba or the Guyanas).

Maroon Societies Read
were groups of rebel slaves in South, Central, and even parts of North America. They were the antithesis of slavery


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.Maroon societies


D. Increasing questions about political authority and growing nationalism contributed to anticolonial movements (such as the Indian Revolt of 1857, the Mahdist Revolt or the Boxer Rebellion).


-The Indian Revolt of 1857 started as a mutiny of sepoys from the East India Company Army and escalated into a full scale civilian rebellion. It has also been known as India's First War of Independence.

-The Boxer Rebellion was a peasant rebellion that tried to ride China of all foreigners.

The Boxer Rebellion

When western powers were trying to extend their spheres of influence into the east, and particularly China, a group of "Boxers" emerged in protest.

  • The Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists, as they named themselves, were incredibly anti-foreign and anti-Christian in their motives of trying to isolate themselves from the threat of western imperialism in 1899.
  • Gaining success and numbers, these lightly armed but incredibly skilled men who believed their power was derived from the supernatural world attacked foreign officials and Christian Chinese.
  • By 1901, the Eight-Nation Alliance suppressed the rebellion (the Han majority was largely governed by the Manchus).


The Opium Wars (1839-1842 and 1856-1860), also known as the Anglo-Chinese Wars, are best conceived as not just wars over opium, as it's name implies, but rather as wars over the foreign trade restrictions imposed by the Chinese government (under the Qing Dynasty) and the problems that the trading of opium from British India posed.

  • It was the act of the East Indian Company (a British-owned trade company) smuggling opium into China and the Chinese government's efforts to enforce its drug laws that sparked the conflict and eventual war.
  • For decades, the the Chinese government tried to contain the use of opium, but as addiction grew among the native Chinese, the pervasiveness of opium distribution became menacing and unmanageable.
  • Britain defeated the Chinese twice with more advanced technology, thus forcing a number of concessions including trade conditions favorable the British, opening ports to western traders, and handing Hong Kong over to the British.

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E. Some of the rebellions were influenced by religious ideas and millenarianism (such as the Taiping Rebellion, the Ghost Dance or the Xhosa Cattle-Killing Movement).
F. Responses to increasingly frequent rebellions led to reforms in imperial policies (such as the Tanzimat movement, the Self-Strengthening Movement or the Reform of Bismarckian Pension Systems).


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Political Revolutions Chart:




IV. The global spread of Enlightenment thought and the increasing number of rebellions stimulated new transnational ideologies and solidarities.
A. Discontent with monarchist and imperial rule encouraged the development of new political ideologies: liberalism, socialism and communism.


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B. Demands for women’s suffrage and an emergent feminism challenged political and gender hierarchies (such as Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, Olympe de Gouges’s “Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen,” or the resolutions passed at the Seneca Falls Conference in 1848).

Key Concept 5.4. Global Migration

I. Migration in many cases was influenced by changes in demography in both industrialized and unindustrialized societies that presented challenges to existing patterns of living.
A. Changes in food production and improved medical conditions contributed to a significant global rise in population.
B. Because of the nature of the new modes of transportation, both internal and external migrants increasingly relocated to cities. This pattern contributed to the significant global urbanization of the 19th century.

II. Migrants relocated for a variety of reasons.
A. Many individuals (such as manual laborers or specialized professionals) chose freely to relocate, often in search of work.
B. The new global capitalist economy continued to rely on coerced and semicoerced labor migration, including slavery, Chinese and Indian indentured servitude, and convict labor.

C. While many migrants permanently relocated, a significant number of temporary and seasonal migrants returned to their home societies (such as Japanese agricultural workers in the Pacific, Lebanese merchants in the Americas or Italians in Argentina).

III. The large-scale nature of migration, especially in the 19th century, produced a variety of consequences and reactions to the increasingly diverse societies on the part of migrants and the existing populations.

Migration patterns changed dramatically throughout this period, and the numbers of migrants increased significantly. These changes were closely connected to the development of transoceanic empires and a global capitalist economy. In some cases, people benefited economically from migration, while other people were seen simply as commodities to be transported. In both cases, migration produced dramatically different societies for both sending and receiving societies, and presented challenges to governments in fostering national identities and regulating the flow of people.


A. Due to the physical nature of the labor in demand, migrants tended to be male, leaving women to take on new roles in the home society that had been formerly occupied by men.
-1. Migration in many cases was influenced by changes in demography in both industrialized and un-industrialized societies that presented challenges to existing patterns of living.


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Because of the nature of the new modes of transportation, both internal and external migrants increasingly relocated to cities. This pattern contributed to the significant global urbanization of the nineteenth century.

B. Migrants often created ethnic enclaves (Chinese in Southeast Asia, Caribbean, South America, North America (also the Washington DC Chinatown); Indians in East and Southern Africa, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia)
(such as concentrations of Chinese or Indians in different parts of the world), which helped transplant their culture into new environments and facilitated the development of migrant support networks.

C. Receiving societies did not always embrace immigrants, as seen in the various degrees of ethnic and racial prejudice and the ways states attempted to regulate the increased flow of people across their borders (Chinese Exclusion Act, White Australia Policy) across their borders.




Crash Course Videos:
American Revolution
French Revolution
Haitian Revolution
Latin American Revolutions
Industrial Revolution
Railroads and the Industrial Revolution
Population Growth and Malthus
Capitalism and Socialism
Nationalism
Imperialism
Imperialism in the Congo (watch this)

Imperialism in Asia