Period 6
Accelerating Global Change and Realignments,
c. 1900 to the Present
Chapters of the other textbook Cram Packet:


Crisis of the Imperial Order, 1900 - 1929


The Collapse of the Old Order 1929-1949


Striving for Independence: India, Africa, Latin America 1900-1949




Screen Shot 2016-04-19 at 6.57.54 PM.png


Key Concept 6.1 Science and the Environment

I. Researchers made rapid advances in science that spread throughout the world, assisted by the development of new technology.

A. New modes of communication and transportation virtually eliminated the problem of geographic distance.


i. Telephone

  • The telephone was invented in 1876 in the United States.
  • Until the 1920s in the West, it was used mainly by the rich and privileged in the "developed" countries of Europe, Australia, North and South America, and Japan.
  • In the economic boom of the roaring 20s that occurred in most Western nations, more and more people could afford to have a telephone in their homes.
  • Telephonic technology remained almost unchanged until the 1980s, when cell phones became available in large cities. The pattern repeated itself: at first, only wealthy people could afford cell phones, but as prices went down, availability went up. By the early 21st century, cell phones had become almost a necessity in the industrialized, developed world.

ii. Radio/Television

  • Originally considered a device for one-to-one communication – "wireless telegraph" – by the 1920s, radio networks began broadcasting entertainment and news two national audiences.
  • Television gain popularity after World War II, so much so that by the 1960s in the United States, more homes had televisions than indoor toilets. It rapidly became more popular than radio as a means of information and entertainment.
  • Both radio and television were used by governments to propagate their messages to citizens and foes alike.

iii. Computers and the Internet

  • The first electronic computer was developed in the United States in the late 1940s. It took up a hold room.
  • By the early 1980s, the first personal computers (PCs) were available to the public. Computers that are now considered antiques were originally high-priced and mysterious toys for the wealthy.
  • Prices of computers began to drop and their popularity began to rise with the advent of the Internet by the mid-1990s
  • Originally designed as a way for scientists to transmit computer data across telephone lines in the 1960s, the Internet became a global phenomenon.
  • By the early 21st century, the Internet connected billions of people and businesses, but there were still many areas with little or no in Internet access, primarily in parts of Africa and Central Asia, although access was improving.

2. Transportation
i. The Automobile

  • Automobile were introduced in Germany in the late 19th century, but like radios and telephones, they did not become popular in the industrialized world until the 1920s.
  • When automobiles did become popular, they change many aspects of Western society. One big change was the automobiles ability to make people more mobile. It became much less likely for people to live their entire lives in one place. Dating without the watchful eyes of parents became the norm. Living in the suburbs in working miles away in city centers became popular. Driving to distant location spots – in Europe that could mean in another country – was also possible.
  • Cars also created new industries and jobs: multinational corporations that sold petroleum products, the travel industry, and government – funded modern road construction, to name a few.
  • The automobiles popularity also led to less use of public transportation, increased rush – hour traffic, traffic fatalities, and increased air pollution

ii. Airplanes

  • The first application of airplanes on a wide scale was in World War I.
  • Air travel in the West was for the wealthy and famous "and military pilots" until after World War II, when an unprecedented economic boom occurred and the middle class could afford to join "the jet set."
  • By the end of the 20th century, passenger air travel was common in the West, but it did not surpass the use of the automobile.
  • One casualty in many Western nations was the passenger train, which had been the most popular form of mass travel for almost 100 years.

iii. Space

  • Space travel isn't a common mode of transportation, of course, but its introduction in the mid-20th century heralded technological step that humans had dreamed about for millennia.
  • Liquid – fueled rockets were experimental in the 1920s and used as weapons by Germany in World War II. The Soviet Union launched the first missiles to orbit the Earth in the 1950s, followed quickly by its rival, the United States.
  • "Race to the moon" fired Cold War imaginations in the 1960s and was won by the United States.
  • After the fall of communism in the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, United States and Russia became partners in space exploration with the jointly run international space station.
  • By the early 21st century, other nations and organizations, particularly China and the European space agency, had launched missiles into space. The enormous expense of space travel meant only the wealthiest nations could afford it. (You don't have to be a rocket scientist to understand that.)
  • Some of the benefits of the space program included: miniaturization of electronic competence, GPS systems, nonstick coating on cooking utensils, medical imaging (for example, CAT scans), among others.

B. New scientific paradigms transformed human understanding of the world such as the theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, the Big Bang theory psychology


After the Scientific Revolution in the 17th century, people's "faith" in science in the West reached a level where even scientific theories affected society itself.

i. After Darwin published his theory of evolution in the Origin of Species in 1859, major debates ensued in Western society.
ii. In the early 20th century, the German mathematician Albert Einstein contributed to the theory of relativity.

  • In basic terms, hisTHEORY overturned Newton's ideas about a constant universe and postulated instead that space and time can vary, depending on the point of view of the observer.
  • In this new view of the universe and humanity's placed in it, there are no absolutes.
  • This view of the universe had tremendous impact on Weston society after World War I.
  • The "great civilized powers" of Europe had set out to destroy each other with weapons produced by the Industrial Revolution, and about 20 million people were killed. Newton's view off and ordered, rational universe didn't make sense anymore.
  • Philosophers, artists, composers, and geology and stood the scientific concept of relativity and applied it to society. Right and wrong were no longer absolutes but instead were concepts for each individual to determine.

C. The Green Revolution produced food for the earth’s growing population as it spread chemically and genetically enhanced forms of agriculture.


gr7637728_orig.jpg

1. In the mid 20th century, the development of powerful fertilizers and pesticides combined with new high – yield, disease – resistant crops led to predictions of a famine– free world.


  • The Green Revolution held out hope that food could be grown almost anywhere.
  • Although food production skyrocketed during the Green Revolution, so did global population.

2. India was an early participant in the Green Revolution in the 1960s.

  • New hybrid rice crops grown in combination with strong pesticides produced very high yields, so much so that India seem to end it's long cycle of periodic famine and became a leader in Christ's exports.
  • Corn and wheat were other popular hybrid crops.

3. Attempts to spread the Green Revolution yielded mixed results.

  • In Philippines, rice yields soared, but in much of Africa, agricultural production stagnated.
  • Shifting weather patterns contributed to Africa's lower crop yield, as have the destructive nature of many civil wars since the end of World War II.

4. Despite the setbacks, the amount of food grown globally increased tremendously because of the Green Revolution – and so has global population
5. Criticisms of the Green Revolution included environmental concerns about overuse of pesticides and fertilizers, the tendency of farmers to plant mono crops instead of a variety of grains as they once had, and unprecedented population growth. More food means more people can eat and thus live and reproduce. But from a long – term global perspective, experts wonder whether the green revolution can continue to feed ever increasing numbers of people.

D. Medical innovations (such as the polio vaccine, antibiotics or the artificial heart) increased the ability of humans to survive.


1. Throughout the world history, infant mortality was the greatest factor in limiting life expectancy. Children who survived past their 50th birthday could generally expect to live into their 60s.

2. The results of systematic scientific research from universities, hospitals, and medical – related corporations were medicines, healthier lifestyles, and surgical techniques that greatly increased life expectancy in the 20th century.

  • The polio vaccine, antibiotics, improved surgical procedures such as sterilizing equipment, and advances in cancer treatments all contributed.
  • Deadly infectious diseases such as smallpox and whooping cough were virtually eliminated through global campaigns off inoculation, yet other diseases developed and spread.
  • More effective forms of birth controlgave women greater control over fertility and transformed sexual practices.

3. These medical advances were largely limited, however, to industrialized nations. In 2011, for example, 26 nations with the lowest life expectancy were in Africa.

E. New energy technologies (such as the use of oil or nuclear power) raised productivity and increased the production of material goods.

energy2432910_orig.jpg


1. Fossil fuels

  • Cool was used as an energy source around the world for many centuries, but the Industrial Revolution's powerful machines demanded unprecedented amounts of fuel.
  • Diesel and gasoline, refined from petroleum ("rock oil") in the second half of the 19th century, were found to be even more efficient fuels, and industrial production increased even more.
  • Like cold, processing petroleum products can damage the environment. Throughout the 20th century, governments and fuel – related businesses struggled to find a balance between societies demand for these fuels and the health of the environment.
  • By the end of this Iraq, despite some implementation of other forms of energy such as solar and wind power, fossil fuels remain the cheapest and most widely used source of energy.
2. Nuclear energy
  • The struggle over the use of atomic energy power plants was particularly intense. In the 1950s, the Western nations and in the Soviet Union, atomic energy was promoted as the clean, efficient energy source of the future, but over time it lost favor.
  • In 1979, a nuclear plant in the United States narrowly avoided a nuclear disaster.
  • In 1986 in the USSR, the Chernobyl nuclear facility exploded, creating unprecedented destruction from a nonmilitary atomic source.
  • In 2011, and earthquake and tsunami struck nuclear power plants in Japan, and an explosion occurred. This event had been dumped the worst nuclear meltdown since Chernobyl but the full extent of damage, human health effects and environmental impacts will not be known for several years.
  • Nations and individuals sought alternative forms of energy such as solar and wind power, but by the early 21st century, there were far behind fossil fuels in terms of electrical output.

II. Humans fundamentally changed their relationship with the environment.

It is important that you understand that the "environment" in the AP world history does not refer to just trees, birds, and rivers. People and their interactions with the environment are integral parts. More people make more demands for more food crops and acquire more housing for shelter.
A. Global Population Soared during the 20th Century1. Because of better medicine, plentiful food, and healthier habits, people lived longer in the 20th century than even before.
  • Longer life tends to mean more children.
  • Population growth assumed in the 20th century, with few signs of abatement by the early 21st century.
  • The highest numbers of people were concentrated in South and East Asia, which had been the norm for thousands of years.
2. Concerns over high population growth led some nations – China and India, in particular – to initiate government policies to limit the number of births.
  • China enacted "one child policy" aimed at urban couples. By the year 2000, China's population was over 1 billion.
  • India's government adopted a national population policy, which incorporated many attempts to curb birthrates, but it's population continued to climb.

A. Humans exploited and competed over the earth’s finite resources more intensely than ever before in human history.

1. With the benefits of anonymous industrial growth also came pollution of the environment on levels not seen before. Pollution such as wastewater or smoke from fires has always been a part of human society, but mass production of goods often meant mass production of waste products getting into surrounding rivers, ground, and air.


  • Pollution threatened the world’s supply of water and clean air. Deforestation and desertification were continuing consequences of the human impact on the environment. Rates of extinction of other species accelerated sharply.

    • In 1970, a grassroots proved – environment movement led to more government regulations off industrial pollution in the capitalist West.
    • After the fall of communism in Eastern Europe in the late 20th century, there were revelations of massive amounts of industrial pollution, unlike anything seen in the West.

B. Global warming was a major consequence of the release of greenhouse gases and other pollutants into the atmosphere.


globwarm3687871_orig.jpg

C. Pollution threatened the world’s supply of water and clean air. Deforestation and desertification were continued consequences of the human impact on the environment. Rates of extinction of other species accelerated sharply.


env5239038_orig.jpg


III. Disease, scientific innovations and conflict led to demographic shifts.


diseasedownload.jpeg

A. Diseases associated with poverty (such as malaria, tuberculosis or cholera) persisted, while other diseases (such as the 1919 influenza pandemic, ebola or HIV/AIDS) emerged as new epidemics and threats to human survival. In addition, changing lifestyles and increased longevity led to higher incidence of certain diseases (such as diabetes, heart disease or Alzheimer’s disease).


1. The first truly global disease epidemic was partly a result of World War I. The 1918 influenza pandemic killed roughly 20 million people worldwide. It is thought that returning soldiers scattered the disease to their home countries around the globe, with devastating effects. Through the course of the 20th century, new strains of flu occur from time to time, but they did not have the impact of the 1918 version.

2. HIV/AIDS was the second major pandemic of the 20th century – as many as three 5 million people died from the disease by the early 21st century.

  • First identified in the late 20th century, HIV spread through sexual contact and needle sharing, the latter usually by people using illicit drugs. It then entered undetected into hospital blood supplies and was transmitted via transfusions.
  • Once it entered the societies of central Africa, it was – and continues to be – highly destructive.
  • AIDS is the leading cause of death in Africa. In 2007, 2.8 million people died from AIDS – 2 million of those were in Africa. Government programs promoting both abstinence and safe sex had limited success in the continent.

B. More effective forms of birth control gave women greater control over fertility and transformed sexual practices.

C. Improved military technology (such as tanks, airplanes or the atomic bomb) and new tactics (such as trench warfare or firebombing) led to increased levels of wartime casualties (such as Nanjing, Dresden or Hiroshima).


1. World War I introduced mass production techniques to the battlefield.


  • Machine guns firing as many as 600 bullets per second could kill thousands of people in an afternoon. Estimates are as many as 8 million soldiers and 12 million civilians died in World War I.
  • In the Russian Civil War of 1918 – 1920, perhaps 20 million more people died.

2. 20 years later, World War II showed that improved military technology, such as massive bombing campaigns against large cities, could be even more destructive.

  • In World War II, over 20 million people died in Russia alone, and roughly 16,000,000 died worldwide.
  • The elimination of the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki with atomic bombs began and it out where instant annihilation on a massive scale was possible.
  • As in all wars, most of the civilian deaths were not a result of battlefield conflict but rather of disease and famine


Key Concept 6.2 Global Conflicts and Their Consequences
World historians often look at the two world wars as one event with the pause in the middle. Other major wars in history had similar patterns. For example, the Crusades and the hundred years war took long "timeouts" before restarting hostilities.


The AP European history and AP US history exam go into greater depth regarding the World Wars, while the AP world history exam focuses more on the global causes and consequences.

I. Europe dominated the global political order at the beginning of the 20th century, but both land-based and transoceanic empires gave way to new forms of transregional political organization by the century’s end.

byeottdownload.jpeg

A. Older land-based empires (such as the Ottoman, Russian or the Qing) collapsed due to a combination of internal and external factors (such as economic hardship, political and social discontent, technological stagnation or military defeat).


  • Austria's once – huge empire was divided into several nations, including Yugoslavia, Hungary, and the smaller Austria.
  • The Democratic nation of Turkey was established by nationalists led by most of our Kamal, who went by the title "Ataturk."

B. Some colonies negotiated their independence (such as India or the Gold Coast from the British Empire).


Some+colonies+negotiated+their+independence++FREEMANPEDIA.jpeg

C. Some colonies achieved independence through armed struggle (such as Algeria and Vietnam from the French empire or Angola from the Portuguese empire).


angdownload.jpeg


II. Emerging ideologies of anti-imperialism contributed to the dissolution of Empires.

A. Nationalist leaders (such as Mohandas Gandhi, Ho Chi Minh or Kwame Nkrumah) in Asia and Africa challenged imperial rule.

B. Regional, religious and ethnic movements (such as that of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the Quebecois separatist movement or the Biafra secessionist movement) challenged both colonial rule and inherited imperial boundaries.


regdownload.jpeg

C. Transnational movements (such as communism, Pan-Arabism or Pan-Africanism) sought to unite people across national boundaries.


ismdownload.jpeg


D. Within states in Africa, Asia and Latin America, movements promoted communism and socialism as a way to redistribute land and resources.

socdownload.jpeg

III. Political changes were accompanied by major demographic and social consequences.

A. The redrawing of old colonial boundaries led to population resettlements (such as the India/Pakistan partition, the Zionist Jewish settlement of Palestine or the division of the Middle East into mandatory states).

B. The migration of former colonial subjects to imperial metropoles (such as South Asians to Britain, Algerians to France or Filipinos to the United States) maintained cultural and economic ties between the colony and the metropole even after the dissolution of empires.

C. The proliferation of conflicts led to genocide (such as Armenia, the Holocaust, Cambodia or Rwanda) and the displacement of peoples resulting in refugee populations (such as the Palestinians or Darfurians).


IV. Military conflicts occurred on an unprecedented global scale.
The 20th century began with Europeans occupying empires around the globe and confident that things would stay that way. In 1900, the United States and Japan were rising powers, while Russia and China were crumbling from within. The two world wars and one global Cold War later, European hegemony had declined dramatically, and China's power was rapidly rising. What a difference a century can make! Between those historical bookends, European colonies around the world gained independence in Russia became the first of many communist nations. After World War II, the Union of Soviet Socialist republics (USSR) and the United States led their allies through decades of global tensions. At the beginning of the 21st-century, Cold War worries had faded, but new challenges to political, social, and economic stability emerged

A. World War I (1914-1918)Screen Shot 2016-04-19 at 7.03.02 PM.png


When World War I ended in 1918, the survivors prayed that it would indeed be the "war to end all wars." No war involving Europe had ever caused so much widespread destruction of lives, property, and empires. The creation of a global league of Nations at the war's end, designed to keep the peace, give many people hope that governments and individuals had learned their lesson and would find ways to avoid future wars. Their hopes were short-lived.

1. Causes of World War I
i. Imperialism

  • By the end of the 19th century, the colonial powers of Europe had competed for decades overland in Africa and Asia. But the beginning of the 20th century, wrangling continued over ever – diminishing amounts of unclaimed territories, leading to increased competitions and suspicions among European nations.

ii. Nationalism

  • Tensions rose inside the Austro Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Russian Empire from ethnic groups that wanted to break off and form their own nations. In addition, leaders of the newly unified nations, such as Germany and Italy, naturally had great pride in their countries and expressed it through imperialist expansion and weapons buildup.

iii. Arms race

  • The Industrial Revolution spurred the mass production of weapons that could kill at faster rates, and from longer distances, than ever before. The French developed a machine gun that could shoot 300 bullets amended, and the Germans built a cannon that could fire projectiles over 50 miles. National pride among the "great powers" of Europe started an unofficial competition among governments to see who could produce the best weapons.

iv. Alliances

  • Rather than to risk going it alone in armed conflict, the great powers formed to competing military alliances in the early 20th century: Russia, England, and France formed the Triple Entente and Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary formed the Triple Alliance. Geographically, the intolerant was positioned on Germany's eastern and western borders, leading that nations leaders to develop "first strike" plans in both directions

v. All these factors (imperialism, nationalism, the arms race, and the alliance system) led to heightened tensions in Europe by 1914.

  • The event that sparked World War I was the assassination of the future Emperor of Austria-Hungary in Bosnia, a province that was teeming with nationalist independence fervor. A chain of reactions to the assassination led to a realignment of the prewar alliances into two slightly different groups: the Allies, initially England, France, Russia, and Italy, and the central powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire.

vi. The Central Powers had short-term advantages at the start of World War I:

  • They were connected geographically; The Allies were separated.
  • Germany had the best trained and best equipped army in the world going into the war.
  • The German industrial system was better suited folk conversion to wartime production than were those of the Allies.

vii. The Allies had long-term advantages at the start of World War I:

  • The Allies had more men of military age than did the Central Powers.
  • The Allies had more factories, but converting them to war production took time.
  • The Allies had a stronger Navy and therefore able to enforce a blockade of the ports of the Central Powers.
2. Features of World War I
i. No one expected a long war. Germany attacked France and Russia simultaneously, expecting a quick retreat that would establish Germany as the unquestioned power in Europe.
  • When that did not occur, the two sides hunkered down into defensive positions in France (the Western front) and Russia (the Eastern front) by the end of 1914.
  • By 1915, fighting spread to the Ottoman Empire and the European colonies in Africa.
ii. The new weapons of World War I – including the machine gun, poison gas, the airplane, and the submarine – led to changes in tactics and philosophies about the rules of war.
  • The machine guns rapid killing power forced combatants on all sites into defensive trenches, but despite the enormous losses, military leaders repeatedly sent long lines of men charging across "no man's land," the open fields that lay between the opponents.
  • The result was four years of shocking numbers of deaths and injuries. In the battle of the Somme in France, 20,000 British soldiers died the first day, and 60,000 died before the first soldier reached the German trenches. After four months of continuous battle, after 1.5 million men from both sides were killed, wounded, missing, or captured.
  • An unintended consequence of this kind of slaughter was a lowering of the value of humanity in the war. Civilians came to be considered legitimate targets in "total war" – where the full economic production and political power of nations were engaged in military victory. Submarines torpedoed enemy civilian ships – like the British steamship Lusitania – and canons indiscriminately fired huge artillery shells into cities far away.
iii. One effect of European global colonization was the use of soldiers recruited from Africa and Asia to fight in the war.
  • India committed 1 million troops to aid the British forces.
  • Military campaigns ensued in the colonies, especially in Africa, with German soldiers and their African recruits battled British and French soldiers and their African recruits.
  • Australian soldiers joined their British counterparts at the field Allied assault on Gallipolli , in the Ottoman Empire.
  • The British also convinced Arabs to unite with them against the Ottomans in Southwest Asia, promising Arab independence from the Ottomans as a reward.
iv. In 1917, the United States entered World War I on the Allies' side "to make the world safe for democracy," and idealistic pledge made by US president Woodrow Wilson.Screen Shot 2016-04-19 at 7.07.12 PM.png Screen Shot 2016-04-19 at 7.07.20 PM.png

  • By late 1918, the addition of US soldiers pushed the central powers to the breaking point, and an armistice was signed. An armistice is an agreement that all sides will lay down their arms and leave the battlefield without declaring a winner- or loser.
  • Wilson hoped for "peace without victory," believing that punishing Germany after the war would lead to resentment and another war.
  • After the fighting stopped, however, England and France declared themselves the winners and Germany the loser.
v. President Wilson proposed the Fourteen Point plan, designed to stop future wars through a checklist of international agreements. The key competent was an international aid organization – the League of Nations – that was set up to settle differences between member nations before they erupted into armed conflict. The U.S. Congress refused to join the very League that Wilson created. Thus, the League was crippled from the outset.
3. Consequences of World War I
i. Approximately 20,000,000 soldiers and civilians died in the war, which was fought in Europe, Southwest Asia, and Africa. The political, social, economic impact of the loss of so many people shaped many Europeans attitudes about war for the next two decades. In the 1930s, for example, a large number of citizens and politicians in England and France favored appeasement, giving in to an aggressor nation rather than challenging it and risking war.ii. The Treaty of Versailles approved the league of Nations but, yielding to pressures from angry citizens back home, the leaders of England and France also dictated terms to the central powers and focused on punishing Germany (so much for "peace without victory"). Germany was required to take full blame for starting the war, drastically reduced its military forces, and pay billions in war reparations to England and France.

  • Developed a strong sense of resentment towards the Allied nations, especially after their economy imploded in the 1920s due to harsh reparation demands from the English and French.
  • The German currency, the Mark, plummeted from a rate of four to the dollar in 1914 to over a trillion to the dollar by late 1923.
  • The allies required Germany to ditch its constitutional monarchy and set up Republic – known as the Weimer Republic.
  • The government was too frail and fragmented to deal effectively with the unprecedented economic crisis. These events caused many Germans to seek radical alternatives to the Weimer Republic and to seek revenge against England and France.
iii. Several international treaties between the world wars sought to limit the expansion of military might and thus reduce the chance of war.
  • The five powered treaty, the London conference of 1930, the Geneva conventions, and the Kellogg's Brian Pact were the most famous.
  • The first two treaties limited the number of battleships each nation could have. Japan rejected the limits because it was allotted fewer ships than the United States and England.
  • The Geneva conventions set rules for war, particularly the treatment of prisoners of war.
  • The Kellogg – Briand Pact outlawed war.
iv. Many of the African and Middle Eastern colonies controlled by Germany and the Ottoman Empire were reassigned by the league of Nations to France and England, we established a mandate system of rule over them.
  • Under this system, France and England were the guide to Middle Eastern colonies of Syria and Lebanon (France), Palestine and Jordan (England), and Iraq (England) until the League decided the colonies were ready for independence.
  • The reality of the situation was that these areas were simply added to the British and French colonial collection.
  • African mandates formally under German control were Southwest Africa and Tanganyika.
  • These moves prompted more nationalist feelings in the people living in the colonies in the Middle East and Africa, and also in Southeast Asia.
v. The Russian, Austrian, Ottoman, and German empires fell during or just after World War I.
  • Austria's once – huge empire was divided into several nations, including Yugoslavia, Hungary, and the smaller Austria.
  • The Democratic nation of Turkey was established by nationalists led by most of our Kamal, who went by the title "Ataturk."
vi. To Allied Nations, the United States and Japan, emerged from the war with their industrial capacity and colonial possessions in tact, unlike most of Europe, and with poised to rise to the top of the world's economic ladder.vii. Conducting the war amidst rising internal problems proved too much for the Russian czar's government.
  • In 1917, the czar resigned and was replaced by a provisional democracy. But it quickly fell to a communist uprising.
  • Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin negotiated an early withdrawal from the war with the German government and thus fighting on the Eastern front ended.
  • As payback for quitting the war early (and because they feared the new communist government), the Allied Powers pretended Russia had never been on this site and refuse to give them a seat at Versailles.
viii. Arming their colonial subjects to support the war effort may not have been in Europe's best interest because at the end of the war, nationalist leaders in African and Asian colonies had military training and equipment.
  • Adding to their inclinations towards independence, many elites had learned about European ideals, such as self-rule, while attending European schools before the war.
  • Another encouragement for leaders of colonial independence movements was found in a key feature of the FourteenPoint plan – a call for "self-determination" for nationalist groups. This Wilsonian concept was specifically intended for groups in Europe, but none of the colonial subjects in Africa or Asia worried about that detail.
ix. World War I ended with many issues unresolved: what would be the future of European imperialism around the world? Could Western nations slow the process of military technology to the colonies Western Mark how would Europe handle colonial nationalist movements? In addition, new issues that didn't exist before the war included what to do about a newly communist aggression nation and how to recover from the economic, political, and social damages brought by World War I.

and World War II were the first “total wars.” Governments used ideologies, including fascism, nationalism and communism, to mobilize all of their state’s resources, including peoples, both in the home countries and the colonies or former colonies (such as the Gurkha soldiers in India or the ANZAC troops in Australia), for the purpose of waging war. Governments also used a variety of strategies, including political speeches, art, media and intensified forms of nationalism, to mobilize these populations.




B. The varied sources of global conflict in the first half of the century included: imperialist expansion by European powers and Japan, competition for resources, ethnic conflict, great power rivalries between Great Britain and Germany, nationalist ideologies, and the economic crisis engendered by the Great Depression.
C. The global balance of economic and political power shifted after the end of World War II and rapidly evolved into the Cold War. The United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers, which led to ideological struggles between capitalism and communism throughout the globe.
D. The Cold War produced new military alliances, including NATO and the Warsaw Pact, and promoted proxy wars in Latin America, Africa and Asia.
E. The dissolution of the Soviet Union effectively ended the Cold War.

V. Although conflict dominated much of the 20th century, many individuals and groups — including states — opposed this trend. Some individuals and groups, however, intensified the conflicts.
A. Groups and individuals challenged the many wars of the century (such as Picasso in his Guernica, the antinuclear movement during the Cold War or Thich Quang Duc by self-immolation), and some promoted the practice of nonviolence (such as Tolstoy, Gandhi or Martin Luther King) as a way to bring about political change.
B. Groups and individuals opposed and promoted alternatives to the existing economic, political and social orders (such as the Non-Aligned Movement, which presented an alternative political bloc to the Cold War; the Tiananmen Square protesters that promoted democracy in China; the Anti-Apartheid Movement; or participants in the global uprisings of 1968).
C. Militaries and militarized states often responded to the proliferation of conflicts in ways that further intensified conflict (such as the promotion of military dictatorship in Chile, Spain and Uganda; the United States’ promotion of a New World Order after the Cold War; or the buildup of the “military-industrial complex” and arms trading).
D. More movements (such as the IRA, ETA or Al-Qaeda) used terrorism to achieve political aims.
E. Global conflicts had a profound influence on popular culture (such as Dada, James Bond, Socialist Realism or video games).

Key Concept 6.3 New Conceptualizations of Global Economy, Society and Culture

I. States, communities and individuals became increasingly interdependent, a process facilitated by the growth of institutions of global governance.
A. New international organizations (such as the League of Nations or the United Nations) formed to maintain world peace and to facilitate international cooperation.
B. New economic institutions (such as the IMF, World Bank or WTO) sought to spread the principles and practices associated with free market economics throughout the world.
C. Humanitarian organizations (such as UNICEF, the Red Cross, Amnesty International, Doctors Without Borders or WHO) developed to respond to humanitarian crises throughout the world.
D. Regional trade agreements (such as the European Union, NAFTA, ASEAN or Mercosur) created regional trading blocs designed to promote the movement of capital and goods across national borders.
E. Multinational corporations (such as Royal Dutch Shell, Coca-Cola or Sony) began to challenge state authority and autonomy.
F. Movements throughout the world protested the inequality of environmental and economic consequences of global integration.

II. People conceptualized society and culture in new ways; some challenged old assumptions about race, class, gender and religion, often using new technologies to spread reconfigured traditions.
A. The notion of human rights gained traction throughout the world (such as the U.N. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, women’s rights or the end of the White Australia Policy).
B. Increased interactions among diverse peoples sometimes led to the formation of new cultural identities (such as negritude) and exclusionary reactions (such as xenophobia, race riots or citizenship restrictions).
C. Believers developed new forms of spirituality (such as New Age Religions, Hare Krishna or Falun Gong) and chose to emphasize particular aspects of practice within existing faiths and apply them to political issues (such as fundamentalist movements or Liberation Theology).

III. Popular and consumer culture became global.
A. Sports were more widely practiced and reflected national and social aspirations (such as World Cup Soccer, the Olympics or cricket).
B. Changes in communication and transportation technology enabled the widespread diffusion of music and film (such as reggae or Bollywood).